This article misquotes an old saying which should more properly be “Where there are two Rabbis there are three opinions” which simply means that Rabbinical halachic or legal decisions draw upon the entire Talmudic tradition which preserves minority opinions and quote several sages from the past. The article says “wherever there are TWO JEWS.” It does not make sense to say that any two laypersons would have three opinions for they would not be learned in tradition and would only espouse their own personal opinions.
Regarding the prevalence of “two Jews” over “two Rabbis” a non-Jew would simply see “two Jews” but an observant Jew would realize they are Rabbis or Talmudic scholars. And what do Jews have to argue over besides Torah, Talmud and Halaka.
By the way, it is my understanding that if a male desires to convert to Judaism then even if he was circumcised as an infant for reasons of hygiene it is still necessary for a drop of blood to be drawn from the sex organ during the ceremony. However if the convert is born without a sex organ or has lost it in an accident then conversion is impossible.
I became curious as to whether an adult convert to Islam is required to undergo circumcision. I found a fatwa by a Mullah in Indonesia stating that a male convert to Islam is NOT required to undergo circumcision. The notion is that within time the convert will come to feel that circumcision is needful and will do the correct thing. I assume that even a male who is missing a sex organ may convert to Islam.
Muslim practice allows that even if someone is, say, alone as a castaway on an island, and decides to convert to Islam then he or she need only summon two Angels as witness and then make the mental and declare the verbal intention saying “There is no God But Allah and Mohammad is his prophet.” A Greek translation of those words of conversion (taking shelter or Shahada) was found dating to the early centuries of Islamic conquest so it is assumed that non Arab speakers were allowed to convert in their native language.
I personally see a similarity between Shahada and Sharanam which is Buddhist and Hindu (Ganesha sharanam, and taking shelter under the noble truths of the Buddha).
Wikipedia did utterly ban the Scientologists from posting info for reasons which are so obvious as to require no explanation.
I do distinctly remember an article about a Saudi woman arrested for being in seclusion with a man who is not husband or relative and they used an Arabic term. I think I have found that term:
Muslim scholars go on at some length about such issues between unmarried male and female in seclusion:
One finds in the above link that the Prophet permitted a wife to go on Hajj to Makka alone if she is within three days journey which does cast a certain provincial taint to the mentality of the times. I also personally find it strange that no mention is made about the direction of Qiblah should one find oneself at the ANTIPODES to Makka (similar the the North Pole where every direction is SOUTH).. although the teachings of Islam advise that when one is uncertain of the direction of Makka one should simply make the mental intention to bow to Makka and then bow in any direction.
Regarding Yichud and the Jewish marriage ceremony, during centuries past there was a little tent set up and the bride and groom would enter that tent and actually consummate the marriage. Rabbis warn that anyone who giggles or jests about what is taking place in the little tent will have no share in the future life to come.
There have been other regional practices both among Jews and Muslims that the bride and groom would go into a room and then a bloody napkin would be tossed out the window as ocular evidence that the bride was a virgin. It is said that sometimes it was necessary to use some blood from a chicken when the real thing was not forthcoming in sufficient quantities.
Islam often states that whenever an unmarried male and female are together in seclusion the third party present is Shaitan (Satan).
The “Sayings of Prophet Mohammad” (an oral tradition which has been preserved) states that during each call to prayer, Satan whispers into the ear of each believer some more pressing task to keep them from prayer. I have always found it odd that Satan has such frequent access to the human audience while God and only speak to one chosen prophet (an a seal of the prophets) and then not directly but only through the angel Gabriel.